Monday, February 10, 2012 CC-BY-NC
L9 - alternate

Maintainer: admin

Feb 10 - Little Ice Age Movie

1653 - little ice age
-- -2,-3 temp change
-- higher volatility , unpredictable
-- 2ft snow in summer in new england
-- famines, chaos, leading french revolution

-- gives us an idea of how large fluctuations could be in the future

1ocean floor cores

-- ratio of warm lovers to cold lovers gives the temp at a certain time

2warm period

-- medieval warm period: 900-1300, 7 degrees warmer, period of growth, prosperity
-- much greater optimism about the relationship with god than it was before
-- churches, etc

3little ice age

-- localized cooling - northern europe was 3 degrees colder,
-- much more extremes
-- glaciers growing more than they had in previous 10,000 yrs
-- "frost fair" - 1607-1813
-- 1315: weather changed dramatically. extreme rain. rain washed things away. rain kept for 5 years.
-- 1.5 mill died from starvation/famine
-- crisis ended, 13020s.
-- cereal grains were easy targets for little ice age. were grown in the warm period
-- susceptible for falling down under rain
-- hansel and gretal, families killed members
-- bubonic plauge, 1347
-- people were already weakened, people in small environments, rats came into houses, black plague
-- accused neighbors of witchcraft fucking w/the climate

4greenland + vikings

-- settled in greenland in warm period
-- greenland was super lush + green, before little ice age
-- before ice age 80%land, 20% water food, at little ice age, ratios switches
-- vikings shared land with inuits (native)
-- inuits could survive winters with excellent fishing techniques
-- vikings refused to adapt to inuit culture, so vikings died

5what caused little ice age?

-- still debated
-- perhaps:
-- -- less radiation (bu only half percentage)
-- -- sulfur deposits indicate volcanic eruptions. sulfur cloud in stratosphere reflects the radiation away from atmosphere back to sun
-- -- oceanic conveyor belt - surface waters of ocean get warm in dropics, flow to north to about iceland, where they lose heat to atmosphere. water condences, sinks. catalyst was flood of fresh water that disrupted the conveyor, stopping it. winds would blow cold, instead of warm, air.
-- middle of little ice age, temp dropped even more. monger minimum. less sunspots, less radiation, cold.

5.1new agriculture that was more resistant to cold


-- from cereals to more rugged stuff
-- farm economy
-- agriculture revolution

7rest of europe

-- potatoes from overseas
-- culture was resistant to the ugly potato
-- in war, people burned standing crops, but couldn't burn potatoes that were underground
-- france failed to adjust
-- -- 1789, coldest winter. major factor in french revolution

8irish - potato

-- ireland's potato was sucesptable to desase
-- potato famine

9violins from little ice age

-- perhaps uniquely dense wood that made great instruments
-- slowest tree growth during g this time.

10beer and liquor

-- production of wine decreased in northern europe
-- northern europeans immigrate


-- victory or defeat often hinged on climate
-- napoleons army from russia died from cold

12spanish armada

-- spanish forced to sail around the upper side of england
-- the cold killed them

13american independence

-- delaware river, chilled w/ice
-- after 9 hrs, americans (gen washington) crossed river
-- washington won the war against the river,

141815 - single most powerful volcanic eruption. the year w/out a summer

-- mt. tambora
-- 100 times more than mt st helen
-- 90,000 people died
-- sulfer combines with water droplets - that sulfer droplet reflects sunlight
-- snow was brown, in italy, snow was red
-- mary shelley wrote frankenstein during this summer
-- europe initiated disaster relief
-- american's moved west

151850 - ice age came to abrupt end


-- fewer volcanic eruptions
-- greenhouse gases
-- natural fluctuation - oceanic conveyor (some thinks that it is periodic)
-- less radiation


-- perhaps warming can lead to cooling (oceanic conveyor)
-- perhaps enough fresh water to cause oceanic conveyor change, like what caused the little ice age
-- change in adaptation causes cultural chaos - like in the little ice age where so much shit happened
-- co2 traps the suns heat


-- hurricanes, higher temp->more drought
-- floods from melting ice

19climate change induced 2nd little ice age

-- debated
-- what consequences would abrupt cooling have on society?
-- -- people are used to their natural climate
-- -- change in adaptation causes cultural chaos
-- pentagon has scenarios the chance of chaotic scenario