Monday, February 29, 2012 CC-BY-NC
Exam Review

Maintainer: admin

1TA office hours

  • Drew: Thursday, March 1: 13:00-15:00

1.1exam info

  • 12 pages, essay, several short essay/short answer, T&F, multiple choice

1.2lecture topics

1.2.1Dr Heuann's 3 lectures

1.2.2Ice Age Theory

  • Must understand order in which people came
  • Louis Agasiz: first to put weight, not first to have theory
  • Replaced in part about Lyell's ice age theory (doesn't explain erratic boulders)
  • Big 3: Agassiz, Buckland, Charles Lyell
  • other 4: know most about Charpentier rafted boulders boulders (which is which, and why, and the definition) rocks: define rocks: created through sand, water, pebbles buckland showed to lyell's
  • know the types of moraines
  • 4 kinds, all evidence
  • need to know names and other types of evidence

1.2.3Astronomical Theory

1.2.4Climate and Enviromental Change as a result of the Last Ice Age

2other stuff to know

  • what is ice age theory? states simply that in the past glaciers and ice sheets occupied a larger geographic area than they do presently
  • during last glacial maximum, 1/3 of earth was covered in ice sheets
  • eccentricity (100k-400k), obliquity (20-23 degree tilt): 41k yrs, affects intensity of seasons, precession: timing of the seasons (21k yrs)
  • parahelion (closest to sun) and aphelion (farthest from sun)

2.1astronomical theory players

  • big 3: adamar, croll, milankovitch
  • adamar: precession, but he had eccentricty as a constant
  • croll made that correction
  • milankovitch: all 3 astronomical theory
  • croll came up w/positive feedback
  • milankovitch: mild summers

3magnetic date

  • dating pleistocene magnetic reversals (potassium argon dating on either side of sediment cores)


  • braided river systems from glaciers carried sediment. rivers would dry up. then wind would blow it.
  • loess is indication that glaciers had been there

5land forms

  • esker, kettle lakes, great lakes, drumlin, recessional moraine, terminal moraine
  • arete, horn, terminal moraine, cirque, laterla moraine, glacial/cirque lakes, hanging valley/fall
  • eustacy (global change in sea level) and isostocy (local lift)
  • watch that 2 min video about ice dams

6human migration

  • global sea level dropped by 350 ft, ice bridge from russia to america
  • refugia: area that did not get covered in ice. surrouded by ice. lots of plants+animals lived until ice melted, then migrated/spread
  • younger dryas: cold snap - influx of fresh water into atlantic, 11,000 yrs ago, stopped thermohaline circulation, lasted 1,200 yrs

73 potential reasons why mammoths went extinct

  • 1) ice ages came to end
  • 2) disease
  • 3) clovus point
  • megaphonal - big animals

8centers of domenstication

  • define domestication
  • are the centers because of the climate

9medival warm period

  • 900-1300

10little ice age

  • 1350-1550
  • coldest period: maunder minimum 1645-1715

11southwest US - anasazi

  • got cooler during warm period, less rain, crop failures, over population... a time of drought
  • lived for 1000 yrs in SW

12viking expansion (extremely important)

  • iceland settled 864, was not settled during warm period
  • in 985, eric the red, got kicked outta iceland for killing someone. he sailed west into greenland.
  • he named it greenland to make it sound favorable
  • after 15 yrs, his son, leif, sailed westward, semiperminant residency
  • sucessful cuz: 1) amazing ships, 2) weather, climate was mild and predictable (key point, predictable)
  • burned/cut down forest on iceland
  • lifestyle of animal husbandry, requirement for grain (when eric first settled, he grew barley, grain)
  • at end, no ships from norway, iceland, impossible to cross
  • church would take payment in any form from vikings
  • vikings were unable to adapt as fully as the inuits (christian belief)
  • animals eating grass caused environmental degradation
  • settlement in newfoundland - erics son leif

13lil ice age: frozen rivers

  • part of hudson river mahattan to long island, frost fairs (over 200 yrs), george washington crossed delaware river - element of surprise

14lil ice age: wars

  • napolean: 130k from russia to france, all froze to death in september (key point: september), only 4k made it back
  • spanish armada: spanish hadta go around north sea, hit by gales
  • french revolution: grain crops failed: church: potato was a sin, king: I eat potatoes

15diversification of agricultural crops

  • established first farming economy

16stradivarius violin

  • 3 reasons: 1) varnish, 2) geometry, 3) wood density


  • 1300s, making wine in england
  • lil ice age, lattitude of grape growing shifted 300 miles

18famine and disease

  • cereal stopped growing, ...
  • breeding ground for plague


  • blamed for the bad weather
  • pope decreed this
  • 50k burned


  • short term effect
  • only if large enough to send sulfur to stratosphere, where it then circulates around the globe
  • vei - volcanic explosive index
  • karkatau (1883): loudest sound, and affected global climate for at least 5 yrs
  • loci volcano affected northern hemisphere not southern hemisphere, cuz it was located in northern point of the globe


  • populaiton not stable until after WW2
  • big dip in population due to loci - the volcano